In all these decades of planting and pruning fruit trees, I only pruned in winter. I read the article here on summer pruning and did some heavy pruning on 2 apple trees yesterday (it’s mid-summer). Do they look good! I’ve always tried to form a good basic structure in the winter, but come summer, there’s always an explosion of shoots in all directions. Yesterday I cut those back. The trees look better, and there’ll be more energy flowing to the apples without all that useless foliage.
The magazine has lots of photos showing you how to do stuff. I also learned some key things about harvesting garlic in this issue.